Offer to take over maintenance Odysseus development has been discontinued in favor of Epiphany a.k.a. Web & independant browser engines.


1st January 2018 — Adrian Cochrane

Language Roundown for Internal Pages

Happy New Years! You may think me odd, but I started my year adding the infrastructure I needed for Odysseus’s resolutions.

That is I integrated SQLite into my Prosody templating language, which in turn helps Odysseus to render data it has collected (manually or automatically) on pages you’ve visited. The following step would be to use this to implement history, at which point I’ll release these changes.

Having done this, I have successfully pulled together the full suite of languages I’ll want to use in Odysseus, so let’s celebrate by having a rundown! That is I’ll run through the strengths of each of these languages, and briefly how they work in Odysseus.


SQL (implemented in SQLite)

Strengths: Processing and extracting collections of data.

Data Model: “rows”/”tuples” of data grouped by their common and predefined structure, all of which gets persisted to the harddisk by default.

Paradigm: Specify a condition/ordering/grouping/etc that output data must match.

Turing Completeness: Not practically. Though it is thanks to it’s WITH clauses.

Parsing: Using Lemon DSL.

How is it run: Compiled down to a bytecode “VDBE” via hueristics and a simple AI.

VDBE (implemented in SQLite)

Strengths: Traversing saved collections of data.

Data Model: On-disk BTrees, with a BTree listing them all. A BTree in turn efficiently combines the functionality of an sorted-list, a Map, Set, and more. These are stored in a single file, which gets locked for every transaction. Dynamically typed output rows may be stored in virtual registers.

Output: Yields tuples from those BTrees.

Paradigm: Procedural, unstructured control flow.

Turing Completeness: Yes.

How is it run: Interpreted directly via a giant switch statement. Reasonable performance.

Prosody Templating

Strengths: Moving data from one place to another, textual place.

Data Model: Coerces between maps, iterables, text, and integral or floating-point numbers.

Output: Plain, auto-escaped, text.

Turing Completeness: Yes, once I enable the { % block %} tag.

Parsing: Two levels of manually written lexers, and a reentrant parser dispatching the logic to registered tags.

Includes topdown operator precedance parsing ontop of the lexer, which handles reading conditions.

How is it run: Dynamic dispatch on the AST. Theoretically slow, but makes up for it by avoiding allocating & copying memory.

HTML (implemented in WebKit WebCore)

Strengths: Adding structure both to text and other linked-in resources.

Data Model: A tree with text as leaves, elements as branches, and attributes annotating the elements.

Paradigm: Data format.

Turing complete: With CSS, not really.

Parsing: Consists of a lexer and various components (including dynamic dispatch into initial interpretor) together comprising the parser, all of which is implemented in raw C++.

How is it run: Initially interpreted via dynamic dispatch during parsing to register event handlers, request any necessary resources, alter the containing frame/window, or possibly construct a “shadow DOM”. Slow, but on a slow path.

Later it’s combined with CSS to construct a “Style Tree”.

CSS (implemented in WebKit WebCore)

Strengths: Describing the appearance of HTML.

Data Model: That of HTML.

Paradigm: I fail to classify it, but consists of what CSS calls “selection” and “cascade”.

Parsing: A nontrivial parser/lexer, with parsers for the different CSS properties and support routines for those.

How are selectors run:

  1. Which elements have been changed and require restyling is checked.
  2. Previous HTML siblings are checked to see if their results can be reused.
  3. The tagname, ID, class, or psuedoclass is looked-up in a hashmap to constrain selectors that need to be checked.
  4. A bloom-filter is used to probabilistically (with no false negatives) discard selectors.
  5. The remaining selectors are quickly compiled to machine code for high-throughput tests.

How is cascade run: The properties prescribed by rules outputted by the selector interpretor are first consolidated into something between an array and C structure; before that’s compiled down into a Style Tree whilst applying CSS variables, inheritance, and animations. The latter step is performed by a JSON file compiled down into C++ via Perl.

The Style Tree

Strengths: Stores style data efficiently in the context of CSS inheritence.

Data Model: Organizes CSS into chunks of related properties with commonality in how they handle inheritence. This both reduces memory usage as these chunks can usually be shared with the parent style, but it also maintains good data locality to improve CPU performance.

Paradigm: Data model.

How is it run: A simple pass generates the right type of Render Tree node, which’ll then refer to the style tree for details.

The Render Tree

Strengths: Layout, basic rendering.

Data Model: A tree of differently typed branches, each with it’s own logic.

Paradigm: Data model.

How is it run: Multiple passes using dynamic dispatch informed for performance by an initial pass detecting what has changed. These passes include normalizing the tree’s structure, laying things out, and compiling a Tile Tree. The former passes essentially work by overlaying another tree ontop of the render tree which specifies how text is split into “runs” and how elements get positioned onscreen.

The Tile Tree

Strengths: Rendering transparancy and movement. This significantly simplifies the analysis of what needs rerendering in the Render Tree.

Data Model: A tree of positioned images.

Paradigm: Data model.

How is it run: Takes the images outputted from the Render Tree and blits them together in the GPU (or, I suppose in some cases, the CPU) either by itself (when using X11) or in the window manager (on Wayland or Mac OS X).

JavaScript (implemented in WebKit JavaScriptCore)

Strengths: It was quick for Brendan Eich to hack together. It is a “general purpose language” that doesn’t have the same sort of strengths SQL, Prosody, HTML, and CSS do as DSLs.

Data Model: “Objects” (maps) with prototypal inheritance, numbers, text, booleans, & arrays. Internally “structures” are used to consolidate prototypes and property names between multiple similarly structured objects, as that significantly reduces relatively slow (but still fast) operations in the datamodel.

Paradigm: Procedural with structured control flow and ubiquitous use of callbacks.

Parsing: Nontrivial parser and lexer written in raw C++.

Turing complete: Definitely!

How is it run: Has multiple levels of interpretors where later stages are used for more frequently called code, all the latter of which compiles into machine code:

  1. LLInt Quick start through interpretation of a high-level bytecode.
  2. Baseline Removes the overhead of interpreting the LLInt bytecode.
  3. DFG Removes overheads of the same type system and common-cases of method calls.
  4. FTL Thorough optimization of machine code via B3 and Air intermediate languages.

Each of these have their own bytecode.

Machine Code (implemented by Intel, AMD, or others)

Strengths: Relatively easy to interpret using an electrical circuit.

Data Model: Binary numbers (integer or floating point, signed or unsigned) stored in either in a finite number of high-speed registers or at a memory address given by another number. The data at memory addresses is stored in a seperate circuit prioritizing storage capacity that is very slow relative to the CPU.

Paradigm: Procedural with unstructured control flow.

Turing complete: Definitely!

Parsing: Little to no need. However there is a need to hide the relative sloooowness of RAM.

How is it run: Traditionally used the electrical equivalent of a switch statement for interpretation.

Now it figures out which instructions it needs to interpret it immediately, and routes it to a circuit that can do the appropriate computation. Also significant amounts of predictions are now involved in interpreting the unstructure flow in order to keep the instructions flowing.

Vala, C, C++, Python, Shell

Not worth describing here.


Sure, it’s true that I’m now using a large number of languages to implement the internal pages for Odysseus. But each of these languages addresses their problemspace very well, with specifically targetted syntax and internal optimizations. In many cases this is done by compiling down into lower-level bytecodes or trees which resemble their own languages.

What this all means is that rather than the code for those pages prescribing the steps to take to display that data, I’ll be able to simply say what data I want displayed, how it is structured, and how it should be displayed.

This should in turn should both make it a lot easier to develop these pages and, since this is how practically any webpage works, using them should make these pages feel like part of the Web. And if they feel like part of the web rather than part of Odysseus, maybe Odysseus will appear just a little bit simpler as it gains new features.

@ 2018-01-02 15:51:25 +1300

Talk Page for Web Languages — Odysseus Development Blog